The Principality of Monaco is an independent and sovereign state under international law. Its government structure is a hereditary constitutional monarchy, governed by the Constitution established on December 17, 1962. The Principality of Monaco is a city-state.
The executive power rests under the high authority of His Serene Highness Prince Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco. The Prince also grants amnesty and Monegasque citizenship, and bestows orders, titles, and other ranks of distinction.
The Government is composed of a Minister of State who represents the Prince. He is the leading authority after the Prince, as well as President of the Government Council. The Minister of State is in charge of the administrative duties concerning the country and the State executive services. He is advised by five Government Councilors who are each administrative heads of various departments (Interior; Finance and Economy; Health and Social Affairs; Public Work, Environment and Urban Development; and External Relations). The Minister and the Government Councilors are directly accountable to the Prince for the administration of the Principality. Government Councilors hold the rank of Ministers.
The Sovereign Prince is advised by two committees, the Crown Council and the State Council. The Prince consults with the Crown Council on specific matters as is outlined in the Constitution, such as the signing and ratifying of treaties, dissolving the National Council, and the granting of amnesty and Monegasque citizenship. The State Council is responsible for advising the Prince on matters of law and order, and may be consulted on other matters.
The legislative power is exercised by both the Prince and the National Council. The Prince initiates laws, which are then voted upon by the National Council.
The judicial powers are exercised by the courts and tribunal in the name of the Prince, independent of the government. The separation between the administrative, the legislative and the judiciary branches is assured. The judicial system adheres to the principles of fairness and impartiality. These principles are ensured through the creation of various tribunals, permanent Magistrates, separate systems in the charging and sentencing of crimes, double jurisdiction degree, and the possibility of recourse through the court of appeals.
More information on the institutions of the Principality can be found on the official Government of Monaco website : http://www.gouv.mc/devwww/wwwnew.nsf/Home